Galvanic cell
The Baghdad battery in the Museum 

With good reasons i can say that archaeology has helped us have an in-depth understanding about a lot of things around us, at some point it also gives us some sort of a hint on how to improve them let's say Electricity. When we think of electricity, we recall Benjamin Franklin and his metal key-kite discovery in 1752 but what if electricity existed before the Benjamin Franklin's discovery like about 2000 years earlier, that's a very big time difference and that brings up this summary facts about the Baghdad battery.

Discovered in Khujut Rabu, Iraq near the metropolis of Ctesiphon , the capital of the Parthian around 250 BC and 224 AD which the battery was said to be originated from but has the pottery style of the Sassanid period 224-640 AD. The artifact was a 130mm terracotta pot, in it was a cylinder made of rolled copper sheets with a single iron rod in the middle. The top of the iron rod was isolated from the cylinder by bitumen and had stoppers, the cylinder wasn't watertight so any liquid added to the pot will eventually touch the rod as well. Researchers hypothesized that this artifact was a galvanic cell used for electrotherapy or electroplating but there wasn't any electrogilded object from the time period it was built.

Baghdad battery
The artifact's main components: the terracotta pot, cyclinder copper sheets and the Iron rod

In 1938, an assistant in the National Museum of Iraq wrote a book explaining his hypothesis on how the artifact was a galvanic cell used for electroplating gold onto silver objects. His explained hypothesis was rejected by skeptics, Sad. Many other speculations from people about the artifact been a battery believed that as it wasn't watertight, grape juice and vinegar (and other natural acidic substance) was used to used as an acidic electrolyte solution to create an electric current due to the difference between the electrode potentials of the copper and iron
electrodes.

Battery hypothesis and research proved the artifact wasn't useful as a battery because bubbles form a partial insulation of electrode due to the gas evolved in the iron,copper, electrolytes junction so the battery's efficiency decreases the more it is used and the voltage created by that combination is below 1 volt. Again, if the bitumen seal was supposed to serve as an insulator it would be very inconvenient for a galvanic cell because it's thermoplastic and require constant topping if they planned to use it for long. This artifact was initially mistaken to be another known artifact, The Seleucia vessels used for storing sacred scrolls because they looked identical. No one has fully understood this Baghdad artifact, its actual origin and purpose is still unclear. Let me hear your speculations in the comment section.
Money pit
Oak Island Money Pit
Still on the archaeological aspects of mystery. As the saying goes there's nothing hidden under the sun or with time we shall know the truth but most times, Time itself doesn't always shed light on some certain things that happen around us. They just remain unexplained forever. So here i'll be talking about a mystery location that was the main target for treasure hunters, still is for some but majority of them gave up as they were convinced that there was nothing there or that whatever treasure was buried there, its now long gone.

The money pit
Oak island map

Coast of Nova Scotia, Eastern Canada. Many treasure Hunter and archaeologists travel from far and wide to visit Oak Island formally known as Smith's island, a name it got from one of the early settlers, Edward Smith. Oak island is famous because of its mystery money pit, a formation of nolan's cross, triangle shaped swamp and the beach at smith's cove. The money pit has been an area of interest for a lot of people according to researches, excavation and investigation on the area started as early as 1850. From Analysis, the construction of the money pit was around 1795 and after almost two centuries of excavation no treasure was found only fascinating mechanisms, wooden platforms, multiple underground canals with leads to water. According to the story told by the locals, earlier excavation of the area at about 90 foot below there was a stone tablet which was inscribed with words "forty feet below, two million pounds lies beneath" but if something like that existed in the pit it means that there was some sort of riches there but then again, early excavators might have grabbed it all.

The money pit is still been repeatedly excavated in search for riches in abundant. Even former president Franklin Delano Roosevelt once joined few Harvard graduates in excavating the area. Critics argue that there are no treasure buried down there, saying the pit was a natural occurrence, there may not be any treasure in the pit but from the looks of it that pit definitely didn't occur naturally. So, till today people still don't know any facts about its creation or its real purpose. Do you really think it was actually created for storing treasures or something else entirely? Let me know in the comments section.
Easter Island
The Moai of Easter Island 

Just as we are vaguely familiar with some of the mysteries of the world, as popular as they may be there are still unanswered questions about their origins or the purpose why they were created. The moai statues in Easter island are one of the most popular wonders on earth but there are some facts about them which people still can't wrap their head around.

Easter 1722, Dutch explorers discovered a very remote island called Rapa Nui while they were searching for a hypothetical land, Terra Australis but found Easter island instead. Rapa Nui was renamed Easter Island by the explorers because of the day it was discovered, they were surprised to find at least 2000 to 3000 people inhabiting the island because it was isolated from any other inhabited land about 1,200 miles from the nearest inhabited area and 2,300 miles from the coast of Chile. The most interesting thing about Easter island are the Moai statues, these statues (887 of them, Wow! ) are so massive weighing up to 75 tons and about 40 feet(12 meters) tall. The statues had a red soft stone shaped like a hat called Pukao. Another interesting thing about these statues is how they were transported, from research the people of Rapa Nui used hand built sleds, rollers and ropes to move these huge statues around but attempts to recreate these methods resulted in damaging the statues but according to Hunt and Lipo's book "The Statues That Walked" provided more concrete evidence that the statues were moved vertically.

Radiocarbon analysis indicates that the island was first inhabited around A.D 1200 by the Polynesians who voyaged to the east Pacific which according to legends were led by a chief Hotu Matu'a, their main place of origin is still unknown. According to ancient stories, the moai statues walked from the creation place to their platforms called Ahu. The statues was built ringing the whole island and had all the statues facing inwards the island which also led to the belief that the moai was created to honor deities and the people of Rapa Nui, the construction of the moai statues stopped around the time the European explorers discovered the island, the reason why they stopped is still unclear but stories were that the people of Easter island were infected by a disease contacted from the explorers.

Moai status
Closer view of The Moai status 

Today, the Moai statues has grown very popular amongst historians and many other statues has been erected on their initial ahu base but its main purpose and why its construction was ceased is still a mystery. Let me know your thoughts on this incredible artifacts.
Confederate gold
An illustration for the Confederate Gold

Most treasure hunters and archaeologists has made fortunes out of their discoveries. Some of them sell the artifacts and information they find to the highest bidder, not every archaeologist do this but for treasure hunters, its their main source of income. They do research on some legends with lost treasures linked to them, gear up and start their journey to find them like the lost Confederate treasures, millions of dollars worth of gold unaccounted for after the world war.

In 1865, just as the American Civil War was coming to an end and the Union Army were making their way to victory by invading New Orleans. The confederate golds was moved by the Confederate secretary George Trenholm to a secure location in Columbus, Georgia. The gold was temporarily stored at the Iron bank by William H. Young. On October, 1862 General P.G.T Beauregard was ordered to take back the golds which William refused but was later forced to release, after that what became of the golds is still a mystery. George Trenholm was later arrested and accused of making off with the Confederate treasures, however this story was the most popular and well believed way about of the confederate golds.
The Confederate treasury
Presumed map to the Confederate Treasury

Another story is that George Trenholm liquidated some of the treasury and the remaining ones in silver, gold and valuable jewels which President Jefferson Davis and his men took with them before they left Virginia and was later captured but all of the treasures were long gone remaining only a few bank notes. Speculations about the treasures is that it was shared among plantation owners for when the South will rise again, another was that it was given to a secret society called The Knights of Golden Circle to finance a second World war (hilarious!!) while some treasure hunters believes it was buried in Danville, Virginia where it still resides till today waiting for them to dig it out either way the actual fate of the treasures is still unknown.
Pyro ghost mystery
An illustration photo for the Pyro Ghost

As the theories to some mystery events are speculative, some on the other hand are not. Some of the mystery events happening around us are simply unexplainable , you have no way of guessing what might be the actual cause it seems as if it just pops out of nowhere, then vanishes. A typical example of this kind of mystery is the Odon pyro ghost, a very short tale.

Odon, Indiana in 1941, a farmer William Hackler left the house in the morning after a while he started seeing smoke from the same direction to his house so he hurried back, only to find a fire burning only on the bedroom walls (for real though). Strangely enough, they didn't have electricity then so what might have caused the fire. Few minutes later, the volunteer fire service came and put the fire out that's when things really started to get interesting. Few minutes after the fire fighters left, another fire started inside the mattress then another in between the covers of a book. Fires kept breaking out all over house for the whole day, according to reports approximately twenty-eight fires popped up that day in a single house and then they simply stopped.

William Hackler was so confused and frustrated by it all that he destroyed the house, whats left of it anyway and started building another one. It seemed to be the best solution for the fire outbreak because it never happened again, this unusual fire outbreak is now long forgotten as the reason why it happened was never explained till this very day. Said it was black magic, other speculations was that the house was not built in good accords, my favorite theory was that the Pyro ghost or fire ghost who oversees the burning of things was not happy with William Hackler. Dear dairy readers what do you think?
Mystery
Photo Of The Mystery Man Tamam Shud taken by Police
I previously wrote about an unexplainable mystery event that doesn't give one the chance to speculate it's origin because it has no evidence or anything linked to it. Which also begs one question "can this happen to a human being?" is it possible to leave absolutely no trace of who a person really is? Well, i think so because tamam shud story's is a good prove of that.

December 1,1948, Somerton beach Adelaide, South Australia around 6:30am an unidentified man was found dead. The Somerton mystery man was named Tamam Shud after a scrap of paper was found in his pocket months later into the investigations, Tamam Shud was printed on it which means "ended" or "finished" in Persian. The scrap was torn from the final page of Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam written by legendary poet Omar Khayyam. After a public appeal by the police the book which the scrap paper was torn from was later found - in it was, a telephone number, indentation of handwriting, unidentified number and a text which looked like an encrypted message. The text hasn't been decrypted or translated in any way fitting the case till today. The case has been label as One of Australia's most profound mysteries. This event happened at a time of international tensions as it was the early beginnings of the Cold war, they were so many speculations surrounding the case. The involvement of encrypted messages, likely use of undetectable poison, the inability of the international authorities to identify the man has led to some theories that he might be working for an unofficial spy organization.

He was found lying across the crippled children home by two people riding a horse. Witnesses said they saw a man resembling taman shud on 30th November, another said they saw him lying there and thought he might be drunk or asleep while  another witness said he and three others saw a well dressed man carrying another man a night before the day he was found. After a search of his pocket the police saw a second-class trail ticket from Adelaide to henley beach, a bus ticket, aluminum American comb, half used packet of juicy fruit chewing gun, half full box of Bryant and May matches and kensitas cigarettes. He was neatly dressed with American made wears and wasn't wearing a hat which was unusual for a man in 1948, he was clean shaved, his clothes and luggage which was later found had all their name tags removed leaving only one with T.keane on it which still didn't match any identity around the world, the teeth didn't match any dental records of any living human being and he wasn't carrying any identifications on him which led the police to believe he might have committed suicide.

Tamam shud
The writing at the back of the book, the last text is presumed to be some kind of a Code

November 22, 1959 it was reported that the inmate of the new Zealand Wanganui prison, E.B Collins claimed that he knew the real identity of the dead man but it wasn't true. After 60 years of analysing the words found at the back of the book by different military intelligence, in 2004 a retired detective Gerry Feltus suggested to the Sunday Mail, that the final line of the words on the scrap "ITTMTSAMSTGAD" could stand for "Its Time To Move To South Australia Moseley street" which was her street. In 2014, computational linguist John Rehling  believes the letters consists of initials from an English text but couldn't match any search for it in a survey of literature and later concluded that was likely written as a shorthand not a code and that the original text might not be ever determined.

Somerton's mystery man
The gravestone of Tamam Shud

The mystery man was later buried on 14 June 1949, at West Terrace Cemetery, Adelaide South Australia. The prayers was led by the Salvation Army Captain Em Webb and was attended by news reporters and police. Till this very day, his real identity, the cause of death is still unknown. Let me know what you think about this mystery man in the comment section.